Japan history, Kirishitan history, (and Western History in parentheses for reference)
1543 Ashikaga Yoshiharu becomes Shogun
Portuguese land on Tanegashima Island
1545 (Council of Trent begins)
1546 Ashikaga Yoshiteru becomes Shogun
(Martin Luther dies)
1547 Francis Xavier meets Yajiro in Malacca
(Edward VI becomes King of England)
1548 (500 years since Pope Leo IX enriched St. Benedict Medal with blessings)
1549 Francis Xavier, Cosme de Torres, and Juan Fernandez arrive in Kagoshima on Aug 15
Bernardo is baptized
(First Book of Common Prayer published in England)
1550 Francis Xavier arrives in Hirado in Sept
Anthony Kimura, grandfather of Sebastian is baptized
1551 Francis Xavier goes to Kyoto, returns to Yamaguchi, goes to Funai,
Francis Xavier leaves Japan
Cosme de Torres and Juan Fernandez remain in Japan
1552 Francis Xavier sends more missionaries to Japan:
Balthasar Gago, Br. Alcacova, Br. deSylva and an interpreter
Francis Xavier dies on Shangchaun Island off of China
1553 Balthasar Gago begins work in Kutami near Funai
(Mary Todor "Bloody Mary" reigns in England)
1555 Balthasar Gago and Juan Fernandez go to Hirado
1556 Fr. Gaspar Vilela and Provincial Fr. Melchior Nunez arrive in Japan at Funai
Melchior Nunez returns to India
1557 Gaspar Vilela and Juan Fernandez visit Kirishitans in Kutami near Funai
1558 Missionaries receive land in Hakata,
Balthasar Gago and new assistant Br. Guilherme Periera go to Hakata
Gaspar Vilela goes to Hirado and neighboring islands
(Elizabeth is crowned Queen of England)
(Marian exiles return to England)
1559 Riots in Hakata
Balthasar Gago and Guilherme Periera are robbed by a ship captain and escape to Funai
Gago leaves Japan, leaving only two priests in Japan, Torres and Vilela
Gaspar Vilela with Lorenzo, Damien and Diogo begin preaching in Kyoto
They open a church in Shijo, Kyoto
(1559 Book of Common Prayer made standard in England)
1560 Gaspar Vilela meets Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru
Yoshiteru gives Vilela permission to preach the Gospel in Kyoto
(Geneva Bible published)
1561 Gaspar Vilela works in Sakai
1562 Gaspar Vilela returns to Kyoto with Mass kit, says the first Mass in Kyoto on Sept 8
1563 Persecution forces Vilela back to Sakai
Omura Sumitada is baptized as the first Kirishitan Daimyo (Bartolomyu)
(between 1563 and 1620 eighty-six Daimyo were officially baptized)
Fr. Luis Frois arrives in Japan with 5-6 brothers, Torres cries with joy
Takayama Dario converts, accompanies Vilela back to Kyoto
The Church grows rapidly
(Council of Trent ends)
(Anglican 39 Articles published in England)
1564 Takayama Ukon (Justo) is baptized
Luis Frois and Juan Fernandez in Hirado
Luis Frois and Br. Louis d'Almeida go to Kyoto to help Vilela
(John Calvin dies)
(Michelangelo dies)
1565 Gaspar Vilela takes Luis Frois to visit Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru in Kyoto
Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru assasinated (committed suicide under siege)
Vilela and Frois escape from Kyoto
Vilela goes to visit Kirishitan in other regions
Over 10,000 attend Kirishitan funeral in Kyoto
Emperor bans missionaries from Kyoto
1566 Luis Frois goes to Sakai
Gaspar Vilela goes to Funai, assists Torres,
Luis Frois goes to Omura
1567 Juan Fernandez dies
1568 Oda Nobunaga captures Kyoto,
Nobunaga installs Ashikaga Yoshiaki as Shogun in Kyoto
Wada Koremasa, friend of missionaries, becomes Kyoto Governor
Gaspar Vilela goes to Shiki in Amakusa
Vilela goes to Nagasaki, a small fishing village
1569 Kyoto Governor Wada Koremasa arranges for Luis Frois to return to Kyoto
Wada introduces Frois to Nobunaga
The mission receives permission from Nobunaga and Shogun
Whole city of Nagasaki converted
First church in Nagasaki opened
1570 Fr. Organtino and New Mission Superior Fr. Francisco Cabral arrive in Japan
Francisco Cabral calls meeting of all missionaries in Shiki, Amakusa
Cosme de Torres dies
Cabral sends Gaspar Vilela to India
Organtino goes to Kyoto
1571 Oda Nobunaga destroys Enryakuji Buddhist monastery
Omura Sumitada and Cosme de Torres open Nagasaki Port
First Portuguese ship arrives in Nagasaki
(Battle of Lepanto on Oct 7 in Gulf of Patras east of Italy)
1572 Francisco Cabral meets Nobunaga and several years of peace follow
(John Knox dies)
1573 Oda Nobunaga drives Ashikaga Yoshiaki out of Kyoto
Oda Nobunaga assumes authority
1574 Otomo Yoshimune (Constantino) first born son of Sorin, is baptized
1575 Otomo Chikaie (Sebastin) second son of Sorin, is baptized
1576 Nobunaga builds builds Azuchi Castle (finished in 1579)
Nanbanji church built in Kyoto
Luis rois is recalled to Kyushu
Fr. Stephanoni (or Fr. Organtino) replaces Frois in kyoto
Otomo Yoshimune succeeds his father as Daimyo of Bungo (Funai)
1577 Interpreter Joao Rodriguez arrives in Japan in his early teens
1578 Otomo Yoshishige, "King of Bungo" (Sorin, Francisco) is baptized
1579 Great Visitor Fr. Alexander Valignano arrives in Japan
Shimabara Daimyo Arima Harunobu (Protasius, John) baptized by Fr. Valignano
1580 Seminary built in Azuchi with Fr. G. Organtino as rector
Joao Rodriguez, ordained in Macau, returns to Japan
Otomo Chikamori 3rd son of Sorin is baptized; later gave up faith
1581 Luis Frois introduces Alexander Valignano to Nobunaga in Kyoto
1582 Oda Nobunaga assasinated by Akechi Mitsuhide, war follows
Toyotomi Hideyoshi assumes authority
Delegation of four set out for Europe with Valignano on Feb 20
Christians protected by Takayama Ukon in Takatsuki
Japan Mission made a Vice-Province
Fr. Gaspar Coelho is Vice-Provincial, replacing Cabral
1583 Hideyoshi builds Osaka Castle, gives Jesuits land nearby
Gamo Ujisato (Leo) is baptized
Kuroda Yoshitaka (Kanbe, Shimon) is baptized
Konishi Yukinaga (Augustine) is baptized
Balthasar Gago dies in Goa
1585 Envoys meet Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII dies, Sixtus V becomes pope
Oda Nobuo (Nobukatsu, John) Nobunaga's second son, is baptized
(Oda Nobuhide (Peter) Nobunaga's sixth son, is baptized at a later date)
1586 Hideyoshi gives Gaspar Coelho land near Osaka Castle
Frois visits all the missions in Japan
Otomo Sorin visits Hideyoshi, asks for help against attacks
Gaspar Coelho blunders, turns Hideyoshi against the Jesuit Missions
1587 Hideyoshi bans Christianity on July 24
Many Kirishitan and missionaries escape to Arima Harunobu's domain
Omura Sumitada and Otomo Sorin die
Takayama Ukon banished by Hideyoshi to Kanazawa
Gamo Ujisato abandons his faith
Kuroda Yoshitaka abandons his faith, takes the name Josui
1588 Pope Sixtus V establishes First diocese in Japan
Gracia Hosokawa converts
1590 Gaspar Coelho dies
Valignano and four envoys arrive in Nagasaki (Valignano's second visit)
Fr. Gomez is made Superior of Bungo and Vice Provincial of Japan
Luis Frois goes to Nagasaki
1591 Valignano (as ambassador of India), four envoys & Rodriguez meet Hideyoshi
Hideyoshi insists that Rodriguez stay in Kyoto
Christian printing press begins
1592 First invasion of Korea
Kirishitan Daimyo Konishi Yukinaga takes part in first Korean invasion
Visitor Valignano leaves Japan
Frois accompanies Valignano to Macao and returns to Nagasaki
1593 Franciscan Fr. Peter Baptist arrives in Japan, meets Hideyoshi
1594 Organtino baptizes over 500 in Kyoto and surrounding areas
Rodriguez visits Hideyosh as representative of Kyoto Church
Rodriguez is ordained in Macao by Bishop Martinez
1595 Sebastian Kimura in Macao for studies
Council of Five Elders is formed by Hideyoshi
1596 Japan's first bishop, Pedro Martinez, arrives in Nagasaki
Bishop Martinez with Rodriguez visits Hideyoshi
San Felipe shipwrecks in Shizuoka, pilot's lies cause trouble
Hideyoshi orders execution of missionaries on Dec 8
1597 Second invasion of Korea
Konishi Yukinaga takes part in second Korean invasion
Twenty-six crucified on Feb 5 at Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Nishizaka martyrdom witnessed by Luis Frois
Luis Frois dies 5 months later on July 8 in Nagasaki
1598 Hideyoshi dies
Bishop Martinez dies
Valignano visits Japan again, brings Bishop of Japan Luis de Cerqueira
1599 Fr. Geronimo de Jesus Castro builds the first church in Edo:
1600 Battle of Sekigahara, Tokugawa Ieyasu assumes authority
Konishi Yukinaga beheaded in Kyoto
Sebastian Kimura returns to Japan
1601 1st Japanese priests Sebastian Kimura (36) & Luis Niabara ordained in Sept
Fr. Geronimo de Jesus Castro visits Tokugawa Ieyasu, gives many gifts
1602 Jesuits Jerome de Angelis and Charles Spinola arrive in Japan at Nagasaki
1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu becomes Shogun
Six martyred in Dec. in Yatsuhiro (Kumamoto)
(James I becomes King of England)
1605 Tokugawa Hidetada becomes Shogun
Two martyred in Aug. in Hagi & Yamaguchi (Yamaguchi)
1606 Bishop Cerqueira meets Ieyasu in Fushimi Castle
One martyred on Aug 16 in Yatsushiro (Kumamoto)
1607 Vice-Provincial Fr. Pasio S.J. as Mission Superior visits Ieyasu in Sumpu
Fr. Pasio visits Shogun Hidetada in Edo
Hideyoshi's ban on missionaries effectively ends
1608 Leo Saisho Shichiemon martyred on Nov 17 in Satsuma (Kagoshima)
1609 Shogun allows Dutch ships to enter port of Hirado
Organtino dies in Nagasaki, Diego Carvalho arrives in Japan
Four martyred on Feb 4 in Yatsushiro (Kumamoto)
Three martyred on Nov 14 in Ikitsuki (Nagasaki)
1610 Kirishitan Daimyo Arima Harunobu obliged to commit suicide
(Brother Lawrence is born)
1611 Franciscan Louis Sotelo establishes Tohoku mission
(King James Bible published)
1612 Christianity banned in Edo
Rodgriguez is banned from Japan, exiled to China
Fr. Diego de San Francisco arrives in Japan
Charles Spinola goes to Nagasaki, is Procurator for entire Japan mission
1613 Hidetada destroys Edo Church
Fr. Luis Sotelo illegally builds new church in Asakusa
27 Kirishitans and Sotelo arrested in Edo, put into Kodenmacho prison
Date Masamne intercedes for Sotelo's release, brings him to Sendai
27 martyred in Asakusa-Torigoe
Eight martyred on Oct 7 in Arima (Nagasaki)
First baptisms in Hokkaido (by a Japanese layman)
1614 Christianity banned in whole country
All churches in Kyoto and Nagasaki destroyed
Many Kirishitan move to Hirosaki (Aomori)
for protection by Kirishitan Daimyo Tsugaru Nobuhira
72 Jesuits including Diego Carvalho deported to Macao
Carvalho returns to Japan secretly
Takayama Ukon and 300 Kirishitans expelled on Nov 8
Takayama arrives in Manila Dec 21
Charles Spinola stays in Japan secretly
Adam Arakawa martyred on June 5 in Amakusa (Kumamoto)
1615 Hasekura delegation received in audience by Pope Paul V in Rome
More Kirishitans martyred at Asakusa-Torigoe
Jerome de Angelis and Simon Enpo sent to north Japan to aid Kirishitans
Diego de San Francisco imprisoned in Kodenmacho
Takayama Ukon dies in Manila
1616 Tokugawa Ieyasu dies
Diego de San Francisco deported to Mexico
1617 Two martyred on May 22 in Kori, Omura (Nagasaki)
Two martyred on June 1 in Kori, Omura (Nagasaki)
Two martyred on Oct 1 in Nagasaki
1618 Government offers reward money for turning in hiding missionaries
Juan Santamarta martyred on Aug 16 in Kyoyo
Juan of Saint Dominic martyred on March 19 in Suzuta, Omura (Nagasaki)
Luis Sotelo leaves Japan
Diego de San Francisco returns to Japan
Franciscan Francis Galvez sent to Sendai
Diego Carvalho goes to north Japan
Jerome de Angelis goes to Hokkaido for 10 days
Charles Spinola arrested and imprisoned in Nagasaki
Cristovao Ferreira takes over Spinola's work as Provincial Treasurer
1619 Fifty-two martyred on Oct 6 in Kyoto
Kagayama Hayato martyred on Oct 15 in Kokura (Fukuoka)
Two martyred on Oct 15 in Hiji (Oita)
Five martyred on Nov 18 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Eleven martyred on Nov 27 in Nagasaki
1620 Ambrosio Fernandes martyred on Jan 7 in Suzuta, Omura (Nagasaki)
Matthias martyred on May 27 in Nagasaki
Pope Paul V sends letters addressed to Kirishitans in Japan
Diego Carvalho goes to Hokkaido, first Mass in Hokkaido on Aug 5
Five martyred between Aug 17 & 18 in Kokura (Fukuoka)
(Pilgrims land in America)
1621 Jerome de Angelis' 2nd visit to Hokkaido, then to Edo
1622 Augustinus Ota martyred on Aug 10 in Ikinoshima (Nagasaki)
Fifteen martyred on Aug 19 in Nagasaki
Fifty-two martyred on Sept 10 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
- including Charles Spinola and Sebastian Kimura
Three martyred on Sept 11 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Six martyred on Sept 12 in Omura (Nagasaki)
Giovanni Battista Costanzo martyred on Sept 15 in Tabira (Nagasaki)
Four martyred on Nov 1 in Shimabara (Nagasaki)
Luis Sotelo returns to Japan
Canonization of Francis Xavier
1623 Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes Shogun, 19 years old
Francis Galvez goes to Edo
Fifty burned at the stake at Fuda No Tsuji in Edo on Dec 4
- including Jerome de Angelis, Francis Galvez, Simon Enpo and John Hara Mondo
37 more executed at Fuda no Tsuji in late Dec
1624 Luis Sotelo burned at the stake in Omura Hokobaru (Nagasaki)
Two martyred in Feb in Hiroshima
Diego Carvalho and 41 others martyred on Feb 22 in Sendai and Akita
Joachim Kuroemon martyred on March 8 in Hiroshima
Five martyred on Aug 24 in Omura (Nagasaki)
Caius martyred on Nov 15 in Nagasaki
1625 (Charles I becomes King of England)
1626 Thirteen martyred on June 20 in Nagasaki
- including Francisco Pacheco, Jesuit Provincial, Balthasar Torres
Mancius Araki Kyuzaburo martyred on July 8 in Shimabara (Nagasaki)
Nine martyred on July 12 in Nagasaki
One priest martyred on July 29 in Nagasaki
1627 Twelve branded and burned on Feb 8 in Nagasaki
Three Uchibori brothers martyred on Feb 21 in Ariake Sea (Nagasaki)
Sixteen martyred on Feb 28 on Mt. Unzen (Nagasaki)
Ten martyred on May 17 on Mt. Unzen (Nagasaki)
Three martyred on July 29 in Omura (Nagasaki)
Martinez Gomez Tozaemon martyred on Aug 1 in Nagasaki
Fourteen martyred on Aug 16 in Nagasaki
Twenty-three martyred on Aug 17 in Nagasaki
Three martyred on Sept 7 in Nagasaki
Three high ranking Kirishitan deported on Oct 26 to Macao
1628 Fumie introduced, continues until 1858
Twenty-one martyred on Sept 8 in Nagasaki
Jacob Hayashida martyred on Sept 10 in Nagasaki
Three martyred on Sept 16 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Michael Nakashima Saburoemon martyred on Dec 25 in Unzen (Nagasaki)
(Puritan John Bunyan born)
1629 Fifty-three martyred on Jan 12 in Yonezawa (Yamagata)
None of the 40,000 self-acknowledged Nagasaki Kirishitans from 1626 are left
1630 Six martyred on Oct 28 in Omura (Nagasaki)
1632 Six martyred on Sept 3 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Melchior Sanchez Perez martyred on Dec 11 in Nagasaki
Rodriguez dies in Macao
1633 Christavao Ferreira apostasizes in the pit, becomes Suwano Chuan
Michael the Chemist martyred on July 28 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Nicolao Keian martyred on July 31 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Two martyred on Aug 14 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Two martyred on Aug 15 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Two martyred on Aug 17 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)

Matthaeus of the Rosary martyred on Oct 19 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Lucas of the Holy Spirit martyred on Oct 20 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Julian Nakaura martyred on Oct 21 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
1634 Magdalena martyred on Oct 15 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Marina martyred on Nov 11 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Two martyred on Nov 17 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Dejima built in Nagasaki, finished in 1636
1635 Tokugawa Iemitsu issues Sakoku Edict
Sakoku Edict locks down nation and strictly forbids Catholicism
Tera-uke system introduced; all citizens must register at temples
1636 Fifteen martyred on Jan 30 in Hanaokayama (Kumamoto)
Fr. Diogo Yuki Ryousetsu martyred in Osaka
287 Japanese and mixed race Christians expelled to Mexico
1637 Shimabara rebellion (ends in 1638, about 35,000 Kirishitans die)
Antonio Gonzalez martytred on Sept 24 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Five martyred on Sept 29 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
Fr. Thomas Kintsuba Jihyoe martyred on Nov 6 on Nishizaka (Nagasaki)
1638 More executions at Fuda No Tsuji on Dec 3
1639 Portuguese ships banned from Japanese ports
Giovanni Battista Porro & Martinho Shikimi apostasize in July in Edo
Fr. Peter Kasui Kibe martyred in July in Edo
Two Franciscans burned at the stake in Shinagawa (Edo, Tokyo)
1640 Inoue Masashige Chikugo No Kami becomes main Kirishitan enquirer
1642 Fr. Rubino S.J. and other ambassadors executed
1643 Giuseppe Chiara, Pedro Marquez, Alfonso Arroyo & Francisco Cassola arrested, tortured
1644 Fr. Mancio Konishi, last remaining priest in Japan martyred
1646 Kirishitan Yashiki built
1647 (1415 Benedictine manuscript found at Abbey of Metten in Bavaria)
1650 Cristovao Ferreira martyred in the pit Nov 4, over 80 yrs old
1651 Tokugawa Ietsuna becomes Shogun
1680 Tokugawa Tsunayoshi becomes Shogun
Kanji for Kirishitan is changed due to similarity to Shogun's name
1708 Fr. Giovanni Battista Sidotti caught in Yakushima (Kagoshima) on Oct 11
Sidotti is placed in Kirishitan Yashiki in Edo
1709 Tokugawa Ienobu becomes Shogun
1713 Tokugawa Ietsugu becomes Shogun
1714 Fr. Giovanni Battista Sidotti dies in Kirishitan Yashiki, age 46
1716 Tokugawa Yoshimune becomes Shogun
1742 (Pope Benedict XIV approves and recommends St Benedict medal)
1745 Tokugawa Ieshige becomes Shogun
1758 (Clement XIII becomes pope)
1760 Tokugawa Ieharu becomes Shogun
1787 Tokugawa Ienari becomes Shogun
1837 Tokugawa Ieyoshi becomes Shogun
1830 (Marian Apparition to Catherine Laboure)
1832 (First Miraculous Medals are struck)
1849 (Hokusai dies)
(Zachary Taylor is U.S. President)
1850 (Millard Fillmore becomes U.S. President)
1853 Matthew Perry arrives July 8 at Uraga Port with four Black Ships
Tokugawa Ieyoshi dies on Aug 25
Tokugawa Iesada becomes Shogun
(Franklin Pierce becomes U.S. President)
1854 Shogunal Grand Councilor Abe seeks opinions of daimyo
Comodore Perry arrives second time with ten ships on Feb 13
Kanagawa treaty signed on March 31
Kanagawa treaty ratified on Feb 21
Shimoda and Hakodate Ports open to U.S. trade
Safety of shipwrecked US sailors guaranteed
Treaty signed with Great Britain on Oct 15
1855 Treaty signed with Russia on Feb 7
1856 Treaty signed with Netherlands on Jan 30
US emissary Townsend Harris arrives in Japan
(Hokusai Manga discovered by French artists)
1857 (James Buchanan becomes U.S. President)
1858 Tokugawa Iemochi becomes Shogun
Ii Naosuke appointed Shogunal Grand Councilor
1860 Ii Naosuke assassinated at Sakuradamon
1861 (Abraham Lincoln becomes U.S. President)
(American Civil War begins)
1862 Twenty-six Martyrs of Nagasaki canonized by Pius IX
1865 Fr. Bernard Petitjean finds Kirishitans at Oura Church in Nagasaki
(Lincoln assassinated)
(Johnson becomes president)
(Civil War ends)
1866 Sakamoto Ryoma, Okubo Toshimichi & Saigo Takamori create Satsuma Choshu alliance
Tokugawa Yoshinobu becomes last Tokugawa Shogun
1867 Emperor Meiji succeeds to the throne, age 12
Yoshinobu resigns
Power restored to the Emperor
Sebastian Kimura and 204 martyrs beatified by Pius IX on July 7
1868 Boshin War starts
Meiji Era starts
Emperor moves to Tokyo
1869 Boshin War ends
(Ulysses S. Grant becomes U.S. President)
1873 Signboards removed on February 18, Christianity tolerated
1877 Satsuma Rebellion
Saigo Takamori dies
1912 Meiji Emperor dies, Taisho Era begins
1926 Taisho Emperor dies, Showa Era begins